**GENERAL SCIENTIFIC LAWS**

**NEWTONS LAW OF MOTIONS**

__NEWTON'S 1st Law__: Everybody continues in its state or rest until some external force is applied.

__NEWTON'S 2nd Law__:

**F = ma**

Force = mass x acceleration

__NEWTON'S 3rd Law__: For every action there is equal and Opposite reaction.

**KEPLER'S LAW**

__THE LAW OF ORBITS__: All Planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits having sun at one focus of the orbit.

__THE LAW OF AREAS__: The areal speed of the planet remains constant.

__THE LAW OF PERIODS__: The Square of the period of revolution of any planer around the sun is directly proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun.

**T² ∝ r³**

**OHM'S LAW**

**V = IR**

V - Potential Difference (volts) ; I - Current (ampere) ;

R - Resistance ( ohms)

**HOOKE'S LAW**

Stress is directly proportional to the strain within the elastic limit.

**FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROLYSIS**

__FIRST LAW__: The mass of substance (m) liberated or deposited in an electrode ,which is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity or Charge (Q) passed.

**m ∝ QIt**

__SECOND LAW__: When the same quantity of electricity is passed in the different electrode ,the masses of the different ions liberated at the electrodes are directly proportional to the Chemical Equivalent

**FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION**

__FIRST LAW__: When the magnetic flux through a circuit is changing, an induced e.m.f is set up in the circuit whose magnitude is equal to the negative rate of Change of magnetic flux.

or

Whenever a conductor is rotated in magnetic field emf is induced , which are induced emf.

__SECOND LAW__: The direction of the induced emf or current is such as to oppose the change that produced in it

or

Induced emf is equal to the rate of change of flux linkages.

**LENZ'S LAW**

The direction of the induced emf produced is such as it opposes the cause due to which it is produced.

or

When increase the flux through a loop , induced field opposes , else in decrease the flux repulses.

**FLEMMING LEFT HAND RULE**

Stretch the Middle,Fore,Thumb finger of left hand mutually at right angles to one another

Fore finger - direction of magnetic field (B)

Middle finger - direction of Current (I)

Thumb finger - direction of Force (F)

**FLEMMING RIGHT HAND RULE**

Stretch the Middle, Fore,Thumb finger of right hand mutually at perpendicular to each another

Forefinger - direction of magnetic field

Thumb finger - direction of motion of Conductor

Middle finger - direction of induced current

**COULOMB'S LAW**

The force of attraction or repulsion acting between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

q1q2

F = ----------

D²

**PASCAL'S LAW**

The law states that any pressure applied to the fluid inside a closed system will transmit that pressure equally in all directions, throughout the fluid

Ex : Hydraulic Jack , Hydraulic press , water towers etc

**BERNOULLI'S THEOREM**

The law states that the increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously , with decrease in the static pressure or decrease in the fluid's potential energy

Ex : Airplane , Ships

**ARCHIMEDES**

When a body is immersed in a liquid partially or completely then there is an apparent loss in its weight. The apparent loss in weight is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.

**STEFAN'S LAW**

The total energy is radiated from the black body is equal to its fourth power of its absolute temperature.

**5.67 x 10^-8 W/m²K^4**

**IDEAL GAS LAW :**

**PV = mRT**

P - Pressure

V - Volume

R - Gas Constant

T - Temperature

m - Amount of Substance

**BOYLE'S LAW**

**PV = k**( Temperature is constant )

**P = 1/V**

The pressure of given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the Volume at constant temperature.

**CHARLE'S LAW**

**V/T = K**( Pressure is Constant )

The volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the Absolute temperature.

**GAY-LUSSAC'S LAW**

**P / T = K**( Volume is Constant )

The law states that the pressure of given mass of gas varies directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

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